The Sunni Ulema or clergy were either killed or exiled[citation needed]. [233], The Safavids by the time of their rise were Azerbaijani-speaking although they also used Persian as a second language. This layer would become the "third force" in Iranian society, alongside the other two forces, the Turkomans and Persians. The works of al-Razi (865–92) (known to the West as Razes) were still used in European universities as standard textbooks of alchemy, pharmacology and pediatrics. And, while it was in the governors’ own interest to increase the productivity and prosperity of their provinces, the commissioners received their income directly from the royal treasury and, as such, did not care so much about investing in agriculture and local industries. The 'Amili (Lebanese scholars of Shiʻi faith) operating through the Court-based religious posts, were forced to master the Persian language; their students translated their instructions into Persian. [158] There even are numerous recorded accounts of laymen that rose to high official posts, as a result of their merits. [45] Ismāʻil was of mixed Turkoman, Kurdish, Pontic Greek and Georgian descent, and was a direct descendant of Kurdish mystic Sheikh Safi al-Din. Define Orthodoxy. The group crossed the Caspian Sea and spent the winter in Moscow before proceeding through Norway and Germany (where it was received by Emperor Rudolf II) to Rome, where Pope Clement VIII gave the travellers a long audience. His History of Shah Abbas the Great written a few years after its subject's death, achieved a nuanced depth of history and character. Ismail I, brought in mainstream Twelver Shi'a religious leaders and granted them land and money in return for loyalty. [6][7], The Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin. Women with slender waists were regarded as more attractive than those with larger figures. According to R. M. Savory, "Salim's plan was to winter at Tabriz and complete the conquest of Persia the following spring. "IRAN ix. In 1598, when Shah Abbas decided to move the capital of his Iranian empire from the north-western city of Qazvin to the central city of Isfahan, he initiated what would become one of the greatest programmes in Iranian history; the complete remaking of the city. Their hairstyle was simple, the hair gathered back in tresses, often adorned at the ends with pearls and clusters of jewels. Having started with just the possession of Azerbaijan, Shirvan, southern Dagestan (with its important city of Derbent), and Armenia in 1501,[56] Erzincan and Erzurum fell into his power in 1502,[57] Hamadan in 1503, Shiraz and Kerman in 1504, Diyarbakir, Najaf, and Karbala in 1507, Van in 1508, Baghdad in 1509, and Herat, as well as other parts of Khorasan, in 1510. The idea of such an anti-Ottoman alliance was not a new one—over a century before, Uzun Hassan, then ruler of part of Iran, had asked the Venetians for military aid—but none of the Safavids had made diplomatic overtures to Europe. This was the beginning of the East India Company's long-running interest in Iran. There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad-din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad-din. Russian Muscovy in the previous century had deposed two western Asian khanates of the Golden Horde and expanded its influence into Europe, the Caucasus Mountains and Central Asia.

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