[15] His successor was a Georgian from Imereti, Siyavosh Beg. [1], The Tofangchi (a Persian word meaning "musketeers") unit was created under Ismail I, and later reformed by Abbas I. [9] In this context, Turkish scholar Abdülbaki Gölpinarli sees the Qizilbash as "spiritual descendants of the Khurramites".[4]. In 1996, approximately 40 percent of Afghans were Pashtun, 11.4 of whom are of the Durrani tribal group and 13.8 percent of the Ghilzai group. [7] Towards the end of the Safavid era the holder of the function was one of the council amirs, and, together with the qollar-aghasi, the two most important military officials after the qurchi-bashi. During the reign of Shah Tahmasp, the Qizilbash fought a series of wars on two fronts and – with the poor resources available to them – successfully defended their kingdom against the Uzbeks in the east, and against the arch-rivals of the Safavids – the Ottomans – in the west. [17] The "rank-and-file" came under the jurisdiction of the yuz-bashi who themselves were assisted by the dah-bashis or on-bashis. [17] However, cases which involved religious law were given to the shar'i judges, whereas cases involving fiscal matters, were given to the Grand Vizier. When Tabriz was taken, there was not a single book on Twelverism among the Qizilbash leaders. the Shamlu or Tekkelu. In addition, he ordered the persecution of Alevis[30][31] and massacre its adherents in the Ottoman Empire.[32].

On his way to Azerbaijan, he recruited followers, and had already recruited 450 at … Since it is unlikely that the gholam unit was created during his troublesome reign, it was most likely created under Tahmasp I, who is known to have invaded Caucasus several times. [38], As mentioned by the Encyclopaedia Iranica, 1600 onwards, the Safavid statesman Allahverdi Khan, in conjunction with Sir Robert Sherley, undertook the reorganization of the army, which meant among other things dramatically increasing the number of gholams from 4,000 to 25,000. During Tahmasp' reign, he carried out multiple invasions in the Caucasus which had been incorporated in the Safavid empire since Shah Ismail I and for many centuries afterward, and started with the trend of deporting and moving hundreds of thousands of Circassians, Georgians, and Armenians to Iran's heartlands. [17] He also gave the verdict over cases in which his subordinates were involved. The word Qizilbash is Ottoman Turkish (قزلباش; modern Turkish Kızılbaş Turkish pronunciation: [kɯzɯɫbaʃ] 'red-head'). All three aforementioned high-ranking military officials, considered to be "pillars of the state", were also recorded as being part of the janqi by the end of the Safavid period. The Qizilbash defeated the Uzbeks and secured Samarkand at the Battle of Marv. [15] This fact is reflected in the choice of numerous qollar-aghasis. In 1510 Shah Ismail sent a large force of the Qizilbash to Transoxiania to fight the Uzbeks. [7] Nevertheless, because of its importance and the fact that the holder was also often a provincial governor, he also had a deputy (na'eb) and a vizier. Some contemporary Alevi and Bektashi leaning religious or ethnic minorities in Anatolia are referred to, pejoratively, as Qizilbash.

[20], The term tupchi-bashi was also used to designate the commanders of local artillery batteries in the various cities and provinces of the empire. [16] The qollar-aghasi was one of the six "pillars of the state" (rokn ol-dowleh), and an amir of the council. [14], The qollar-aghasi (also spelled qullar-aqasi) was the commander of the empire's élite gholam (military slave) corps. The Qizilbash were a coalition of many different tribes of predominantly (but not exclusively) Turkic-speaking background united in their adherence to Safavi Shia Islam. 5, p. 243: "Kizilbāsh (T. "Red-head"). He appointed the Governor of Herat and his former guardian and tutor, Alī Quli Khān Shāmlū (also known as Hājī Alī Qizilbāsh Mazandarānī) the chief of all the armed forces.
[29] This defeat put an end to Safavid expansion and influence in Transoxania and left the northeastern frontiers of the kingdom vulnerable to nomad invasions, until some decades later. [1] It was, to a large degree, similar to the janissary system of the neighbouring Ottoman Empire, in its implementation and formation. The Ottomans -equipped with both firearms and cannon- were reported to outnumber the Qizilbash as much as three to one. By the summer of 1500, about 7,000 supporters from the local Turcoman tribes of Asia Minor (Anatolia), Syria, and the Caucasus – collectively called "Qizilbash" by their enemies – rallied to his support in Erzincan. Although the Tupchian proved very usable for the Safavids, not much known is about it, and they are mostly mentioned in European sources. They regarded their rulers as divine figures, and so were classified as ghulat "extremists" by orthodox Twelvers.[11]. Abbas I gave several of qurchis governorship of large provinces, which decreased the power of the Qizilbash commanders, who were used to govern large provinces. — N. — Nadir Shah Afshar, page 305 – 306. In order to stop the Safavid propaganda, Sultan Bayezid II deported large numbers of the Shi'i population of Asia Minor to Morea. Gibb & H. Bowen, "Islamic society and the West", i/2, Oxford, 1957, p. 189, The Dictionary.
[citation needed].

Some of Nadir's Qizilbash soldiers settled in Afghanistan where their descendants had successful careers in the army (until the end of Dost Muhammad's rule), government, the trades, and crafts. [37] For example, the most famous general of Abbas I (r. 1588-1629), the celebrated Allahverdi Khan, was the second qollar-aghasi. [7], Until 1533, the post of commander-in-chief was combined with that of viceregent (vakil).


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