In the 1960s, 219 counties in the 13-state Appalachian Region were considered economically distressed. [114] Martin County, Kentucky, the site of Johnson's 1964 speech, is one such county still ranked as "distressed" by the ARC. In spite of consolidation and centralization, schools in Appalachia struggled to keep up with federal and state demands into the 21st century. By 1900, the Chattanooga area and north Georgia and northern Alabama had experienced similar changes due to manufacturing booms in Atlanta and Birmingham at the edge of the Appalachian region. The study found that the extractive industries, i.e., timber, coal, etc., were "greatly underassessed for property tax purposes. In 1526 enslaved Africans were brought to the Pedee River region of western North Carolina by Spanish explorer, Lucas Vazquez de Ayllõn. The American chestnut was also an important human food source until the chestnut blight struck in the 20th century. Alvic, Philis, "Settlement, Mission, and Sponsored Schools". [88], Appalachian folk tales are rooted in English, Scottish, and Irish fairy tales, as well as regional heroic figures and events. [78], The Appalachian dialect is a dialect of Midland American English known as the Southern Midland dialect, and is spoken primarily in central and southern Appalachia. [102] Another Pittsburgh company, Alcoa, helped establish the nation's aluminum industry in the early 20th century, and has had a significant impact on the economies of western Pennsylvania and east Tennessee. [93], Logging in Appalachia reached its peak in the early 20th century, when firms such as the Ritter Lumber Company cut the virgin forests on an alarming scale, leading to the creation of national forests in 1911 and similar state entities to better manage the region's timber resources. In the years following World War I, British folklorist Cecil Sharp brought attention to Southern Appalachia when he noted that its inhabitants still sang hundreds of English and Scottish ballads that had been passed down to them from their ancestors. Abramson, Rudy, and Haskell, Jean, editors (2006). [123], Depictions of Appalachia and its inhabitants in popular media are typically negative, making the region an object of humor, derision, and social concern. In 2008, Appalachian Ohio had a per capita market income of $22,294, compared with $29,344 statewide and $34,004 nationwide. You can find limestone, sandstone, coal and other sedimentary rock in the Appalachian Plateau . The remaining half of Appalachian Ohio counties were designated "transitional", meaning they lagged behind the national average on one of the three key indicators. In recent decades, the concept of sustainable agriculture has been applied to the region's small farms, with some success. [14][15] This pronunciation is favored in the "core" region in central and southern parts of the Appalachian range.

The region contains deep soils, medium soils and shallow soils that are ideal for cultivation. The average elevation of this plateau is about 300 – 600 m above sea level.

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